Kidney failure. It can occur from an acute situation or from chronic problems. In acute renal failure, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body. The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred. Prerenal causes (pre=before + renal=kidney) causes are due to decreased blood supply to the kidney. Examples of prerenal causes are: * Hypovolemia (low blood volume) due to blood loss * Dehydration from loss of body fluid (vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, fever ) * Poor intake of fluids * Medication, for example, diuretics ("water pills") may cause excessive water loss. * Loss of blood supply to the kidney due to obstruction of the renal artery or vein. Renal causes (damage directly to the kidney itself) include: * Sepsis: The body's immune system is overwhelmed from infection and causes inflammation and shutdown of the kidneys. This usually does not occur with urinary tract infections. * Medications: Some medications are toxic to the kidney, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen. Others are antibiotics like aminoglycosides [gentamicin (Garamycin), tobramycin], lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), iodine-containing medications such as those injected for radiology dye studies. * Rhabdomyolysis: This is a situation in which there is significant muscle breakdown in the body, and the degeneration products of muscle fibers clog the filtering system of the kidneys. Often occurring because of trauma and crush injuries, it can also be caused by some medications used to treat high cholesterol. * Multiple Myeloma * Acute glomerulonephritis or inflammation of the glomeruli, the filtering system of the kidneys. Many diseases can cause this inflammation including systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis, and Goodpasture syndrome. Post renal causes (post=after + renal= kidney) are due to factors that affect outflow of the urine: * Obstruction of the bladder or the ureters can cause back pressure when there is no place for the urine to go as the kidneys continue to work. When the pressure increases enough, the kidneys shut down. * Prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer may block the urethra and prevents the bladder from emptying. * Tumors in the abdomen that surround and obstruct the ureters. * Kidney stones Chronic renal failure develops over months and years. The most common causes of chronic renal failure are related to: * Poorly controlled diabetes * Poorly controlled high blood pressure * Chronic glomerulonephritis Less common causes: * Polycystic Kidney Disease * Reflux nephropathy * Kidney stones * Prostate disease KIDNEY DISEASE Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis. Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a falling glomerular filtration rate (rate at which the kidneys filter blood) and as a result a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a urine sample) shows that the kidney is allowing the loss of protein or red blood cells into the urine. To fully investigate the underlying cause of kidney damage, various forms of medical imaging, blood tests and often renal biopsy (removing a small sample of kidney tissue) are employed to find out if there is a reversible cause for the kidney malfunction. Recent professional guidelines classify the severity of chronic kidney disease in five stages, with stage 1 being the mildest and usually causing few symptoms and stage 5 being a severe illness with poor life expectancy if untreated. Stage 5 CKD is also called established chronic kidney disease and is synonymous with the now outdated terms end-stage renal disease (ESRD), chronic kidney failure (CKF) or chronic renal failure (CRF). There is no specific treatment unequivocally shown to slow the worsening of chronic kidney disease. If there is an underlying cause to CKD, such as vasculitis, this may be treated directly with treatments aimed to slow the damage. In more advanced stages, treatments may be required for anemia and bone disease. Severe CKD requires one of the forms of renal replacement therapy this may be a form of dialysis, but ideally constitutes a kidney transplant. Signs and symptoms Initially it is without specific symptoms and can only be detected as an increase in serum creatinine or protein in the urine. As the kidney function decreases: * blood pressure is increased due to fluid overload and production of vasoactive hormones, increasing one's risk of developing hypertension and/or suffering from congestive heart failure * Urea accumulates, leading to azotemia and ultimately uremia (symptoms ranging from lethargy to pericarditis and encephalopathy). Urea is excreted by sweating and crystallizes on skin ("uremic frost"). * Potassium accumulates in the blood (known as hyperkalemia with a range of symptoms including malaise and potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias) * Erythropoietin synthesis is decreased (potentially leading to anemia, which causes fatigue) * Fluid volume overload - symptoms may range from mild edema to life-threatening pulmonary edema * Hyperphosphatemia - due to reduced phosphate excretion, associated with hypocalcemia (due to vitamin D3 deficiency). The major sign of hypocalcemia being tetany. Later this progresses to tertiary hyperparathyroidism, with hypercalcaemia, renal osteodystrophy and vascular calcification that further impairs cardiac function. * Metabolic acidosis, due to accumulation of sulfates, phosphates, uric acid etc. This may cause altered enzyme activity by excess acid acting on enzymes and also increased excitability of cardiac and neuronal membranes by the promotion of hyperkalemia due to excess acid (acidemia). People with chronic kidney disease suffer from accelerated atherosclerosis and are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease than the general population. Patients afflicted with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease tend to have significantly worse prognoses than those suffering only from the latter. Stage 1 CKD Slightly diminished function Kidney damage with normal or relatively high GFR (>90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studies. Stage 2 CKD Mild reduction in GFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2) with kidney damage. Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studies. Stage 3 CKD Moderate reduction in GFR (30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2).British guidelines distinguish between stage 3A (GFR 45-59) and stage 3B (GFR 30-44) for purposes of screening and referral. Stage 4 CKD Severe reduction in GFR (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2).Preparation for renal replacement therapy Stage 5 CKD Established kidney failure (GFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, or permanent renal replacement therapy (RRT) Causes The most common causes of CKD are diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. Together, these cause approximately 75% of all adult cases. Certain geographic areas have a high incidence of HIV nephropathy. Historically, kidney disease has been classified according to the part of the renal anatomy that is involved, as: * Vascular, includes large vessel disease such as bilateral renal artery stenosis and small vessel disease such as ischemic nephropathy, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and vasculitis * Glomerular, comprising a diverse group and subclassified into Primary Glomerular disease such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and IgA nephritis . + Secondary Glomerular disease such as diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephritis * Tubulointerstitial including polycystic kidney disease, drug and toxin-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and reflux nephropathy * Obstructive such as with bilateral kidney stones and diseases of the prostate.
AYURVEDIC TREATMENT: THEY PROVIDE FULL AND SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT FOR THIS PROBLEM. IN THIS THEY PROVIDE HERBAL MEDICINE LIKE POWDER, PILLS, AND KWATH (LIQUID) AND OIL FOR MASSAGE. THEY DO TAKE CARE ABOUT BLOOD PRESSURE AND DIGESTION AND URINE SYSTEM OF THE PATIENT. THERE IS NO SIDE EFFECT FOR THIS AYURVEDIC TREATMENT. TO START THE TREATMENT THEY NEED FULL DETAIL AND INFORMATION ABOUT THE PATIENT. IF POSSIBLE DO SEND THEM MEDICAL AND LAB REPORT RELATED TO PATIENT. THEY JUST MANUFACTURE THE MEDICINES IN THEIR OWN MANUFACTURING UNIT. THEY PROVIDE THE MEDICINES TO THEIR PATIENT ONLY IT’S NOT FOR COMMERCIAL BASIS.