Hypertension

Hypertension Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the blood pressure is chronically elevated. In current usage, the word "hypertension" without a qualifier normally refers to systemic, arterial hypertension. The other type is pulmonary hypertension and involves lung circulation. Hypertension can be classified as either essential (primary) or secondary. Essential hypertension indicates that no specific medical cause can be found to explain a patient's condition. About 90-95% of hypertension is essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension indicates that the high blood pressure is a result of (i.e., secondary to) another condition, such as kidney disease or tumors’ (adrenal adenoma or pheochromocytoma). Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure. Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. At severely high pressures, defined as mean arterial pressures 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated. Beginning at a systolic pressure (which is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting) of 115 mmHg and diastolic pressure (which is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood) of 75 mmHg (commonly written as 115/75 mmHg), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mmHg. Classification The variation in pressure in the left ventricle (blue line) and the aorta (red line) over two cardiac cycles ("heart beats"), showing the definitions of systolic and diastolic pressure. A recent classification recommends blood pressure criteria for defining normal blood pressure, prehypertension, hypertension (stages I and II), and isolated systolic hypertension, which is a common occurrence among the elderly. These readings are based on the average of seated blood pressure readings that were properly measured during 2 or more office visits. In individuals older than 50 years, hypertension is considered to be present when a person's blood pressure is consistently at least 140 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic. Patients with blood pressures over 130/80 mmHg along with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, or kidney disease require further treatment Classification Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure mmHg kPa (kN/m2) mmHg kPa (kN/m2) Normal 90–119 12–15.9 60–79 8.0–10.5 Prehypertension 120–139 16.0–18.5 80–89 10.7–11.9 Stage 1 140–159 18.7–21.2 90–99 12.0–13.2 Stage 2 � 󖾉.3 � 󖾁.3 Isolated systolic hypertension � 󖾆.7 <90 <12.0 Source: American Heart Association (2003) Resistant hypertension is defined as the failure to reduce blood pressure to the appropriate level after taking a three-drug regimen (include thiazide diuretic).Guidelines for treating resistant hypertension have been published in the UK, and US Excessive elevation in blood pressure during exercise is called exercise hypertension.The upper normal systolic values during exercise reach levels between 200 and 230 mm Hg. Exercise hypertension may be regarded as a precursor to established hypertension at rest. Signs and symptoms Headaches are a common symptom of hypertension Mild to moderate essential hypertension is largely asymptomatic. The most frequent symptom, headache, is also very nonspecific. Accelerated hypertension is associated with somnolence, confusion, visual disturbances, and nausea and vomiting (hypertensive encephalopathy). Retinas are affected with narrowing of arterial diameter to less than 50% of venous diameter, copper or silver wire appearance, exudates, hemorrhages, or papilledema. Some signs and symptoms are especially important in infants and neonates such as failure to thrive, seizure, irritability or lethargy, and respiratory distress. While in children hypertension may cause headache, fatigue, blurred vision, epistaxis, and bell palsy. Image showing patient with growth hormone excess Some signs and symptoms are especially important in suggesting a secondary medical cause of chronic hypertension, such as centripetal obesity, "buffalo hump," and/or wide purple abdominal striae and maybe a recent onset of diabetes suggest glucocorticoid excess either due to Cushing's syndrome or other causes. Hypertension due to other secondary endocrine diseases such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or growth hormone excess show symptoms specific to these disease such as in hyperthyrodism there may be weight loss, tremor, tachycardia or atrial arrhythmia, palmar erythema and sweating.Signs and symptoms associated with growth hormone excess such as coarsening of facial features, prognathism, macroglossia, hypertrichosis, hyperpigmentation, and hyperhidrosis may occur in these patients.499. Other endocrine causes such as hyperaldosteronism may cause less specific symptoms such as numbness, polyuria, polydipsia, hypernatraemia, and metabolic alkalosis.A systolic bruit heard over the abdomen or in the flanks suggests renal artery stenosis. Also radiofemoral delay or diminished pulses in lower versus upper extremities suggests coarctation of the aorta. Hypertension in patients with pheochromocytomas is usually sustained but may be episodic. The typical attack lasts from minutes to hours and is associated with headache, anxiety, palpitation, profuse perspiration, pallor, tremor, and nausea and vomiting. Blood pressure is markedly elevated, and angina or acute pulmonary edema may occur. In primary aldosteronism, patients may have muscular weakness, polyuria, and nocturia due to hypokalemia. Chronic hypertension often leads to left ventricular hypertrophy, which can present with exertional and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Cerebral involvement causes stroke due to thrombosis or hemorrhage from microaneurysms of small penetrating intracranial arteries. Hypertensive encephalopathy is probably caused by acute capillary congestion and exudation with cerebral edema, which is reversible. Signs and symptoms associated with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, can be proteinuria, edema, and hallmark of eclampsia which is convulsions, Other cerebral signs may precede the convulsion such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, and blindness. Causes Hypertension is one of the most common complex disorders. The etiology of hypertension differs widely amongst individuals within a large population. Essential hypertension is the form of hypertension that by definition has no identifiable cause. It is the more common type and affects 90-95% of hypertensive patients, and even though there are no direct causes, there are many risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity (more than 85% of cases occur in those with a body mass index greater than 25),salt (sodium) sensitivity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D deficiency. It is also relate to aging and to some inherited genetic mutations. Family history increases the risk of developing hypertension. Renin elevation is another risk factor, Renin is an enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney and linked with aldosterone in a negative feedback loop. Also sympathetic overactivity is implicated.Insulin resistance which is a component of syndrome X, or the metabolic syndrome is also thought to cause hypertension. Recently low birth weight has been questioned as a risk factor for adult essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension On the other hand, secondary hypertension is by definition results from an identifiable cause. This type is important to recognize since its treated differently than essential type by treating the underlying cause. Many secondary causes can cause hypertension some are common and well recognized secondary causes such as Cushing's syndrome, which is a condition where both adrenal glands can overproduce the hormone cortisol. Hypertension results from the interplay of several pathophysiological mechanisms regulating plasma volume, peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac output, all of which may be increased. More than 80% of patients with Cushing's syndrome have hypertension. Another important cause is the congenital abnormality coarctation of the aorta. Measuring blood pressure Conventional (mechanical) sphygmomanometer with aneroid manometer and stethoscope, used to measure blood pressure Diagnosis of hypertension is generally on the basis of a persistently high blood pressure. Usually this requires three separate measurements at least one week apart. Exceptionally, if the elevation is extreme, or end-organ damage is present then the diagnosis may be applied and treatment commenced immediately. Obtaining reliable blood pressure measurements relies on following several rules and understanding the many factors that influence blood pressure reading. For instance, measurements in control of hypertension should be at least 1 hour after caffeine, 30 minutes after smoking or strenuous exercise and without any stress. Cuff size is also important. The bladder should encircle and cover two-thirds of the length of the (upper) arm. The patient should be sitting upright in a chair with both feet flat on the floor for a minimum of five minutes prior to taking a reading. The patient should not be on any adrenergic stimulants, such as those found in many cold medications. When taking manual measurements, the person taking the measurement should be careful to inflate the cuff suitably above anticipated systolic pressure. The person should inflate the cuff to 200 mmHg and then slowly release the air while palpating the radial pulse. After one minute, the cuff should be reinflated to 30 mmHg higher than the pressure at which the radial pulse was no longer palpable. A stethoscope should be placed lightly over the brachial artery. The cuff should be at the level of the heart and the cuff should be deflated at a rate of 2 to 3 mmHg/s. Systolic pressure is the pressure reading at the onset of the sounds described by Korotkoff (Phase one). Diastolic pressure is then recorded as the pressure at which the sounds disappear (K5) or sometimes the K4 point, where the sound is abruptly muffled. Two measurements should be made at least 5 minutes apart, and, if there is a discrepancy of more than 5 mmHg, a third reading should be done. The readings should then be averaged. An initial measurement should include both arms. In elderly patients who particularly when treated may show orthostatic hypotension, measuring lying sitting and standing BP may be useful. The BP should at some time have been measured in each arm, and the higher pressure arm preferred for subsequent measurements. BP varies with time of day, as may the effectiveness of treatment, and archetypes used to record the data should include the time taken. Analysis of this is rare at present. Automated machines are commonly used and reduce the variability in manually collected readings. Routine measurements done in medical offices of patients with known hypertension may incorrectly diagnose 20% of patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Home blood pressure monitoring can provide a measurement of a person's blood pressure at different times throughout the day and in different environments, such as at home and at work. Home monitoring may assist in the diagnosis of high or low blood pressure. It may also be used to monitor the effects of medication or lifestyle changes taken to lower or regulate blood pressure levels. Home monitoring of blood pressure can also assist in the diagnosis of white coat hypertension. The American Heart Association states, "You may have what's called 'white coat hypertension' that means your blood pressure goes up when you're at the doctor's office. Monitoring at home will help you measure your true blood pressure and can provide your doctor with a log of blood pressure measurements over time. This is helpful in diagnosing and preventing potential health problems." Some home blood pressure monitoring devices also make use of blood pressure charting software. These charting methods provide printouts for the patient's physician and reminders to take a blood pressure reading. However, a simple and cheap way is simply to manually record values with pen and paper, which can then be inspected by a doctor. Systolic hypertension is defined as an elevated systolic blood pressure. If systolic blood pressure is elevated with a normal diastolic blood pressure, it is called isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension may be due to reduced compliance of the aorta with increasing age Prevention The degree to which hypertension can be prevented depends on a number of features including: current blood pressure level, changes in end/target organs (retina, kidney, heart - among others), risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the age at presentation. Unless the presenting patient has very severe hypertension, there should be a relatively prolonged assessment period within which should be repeated measurements of blood pressure. Following this, lifestyle advice and non-pharmacological options should be offered to the patient, before any initiation of drug therapy. The process of managing hypertension according the guidelines of the British Hypertension Society suggest that non-pharmacological options should be explored in all patients who are hypertensive or pre-hypertensive. These measures include * Weight reduction and regular aerobic exercise (e.g., walking) are recommended as the first steps in treating mild to moderate hypertension. Regular exercise improves blood flow and helps to reduce resting heart rate and blood pressure. Several studies indicate that low intensity exercise may be more effective in lowering blood pressure than higher intensity exercise. These steps are highly effective in reducing blood pressure, although drug therapy is still necessary for many patients with moderate or severe hypertension to bring their blood pressure down to a safe level. * Reducing dietary sugar intake. * Reducing sodium (salt) in the diet may be effective: It decreases blood pressure in about 33% of people (see above). Many people use a salt substitute to reduce their salt intake. * Additional dietary changes beneficial to reducing blood pressure includes the DASH diet (dietary approaches to stop hypertension), which is rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat or fat-free dairy foods. This diet has been shown to be effective based on research sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. In addition, an increase in daily calcium intake has the benefit of increasing dietary potassium, which theoretically can offset the effect of sodium and act on the kidney to decrease blood pressure. This has also been shown to be highly effective in reducing blood pressure. * Discontinuing tobacco use and alcohol consumption has been shown to lower blood pressure. The exact mechanisms are not fully understood, but blood pressure (especially systolic) always transiently increases following alcohol or nicotine consumption. Besides, abstention from cigarette smoking is important for people with hypertension because it reduces the risk of many dangerous outcomes of hypertension, such as stroke and heart attack. Note that coffee drinking (caffeine ingestion) also increases blood pressure transiently but does not produce chronic hypertension. * Reducing stress, for example with relaxation therapy, such as meditation and other mind body relaxation techniques,by reducing environmental stress such as high sound levels and over-illumination can be an additional method of ameliorating hypertension. Jacobson's Progressive Muscle Relaxation and biofeedback are also used,particularly, device-guided paced breathing, although meta-analysis suggests it is not effective unless combined with other relaxation techniques. 

 

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